Sometimes UBUNTU does not show launcher due to some problem and in that case we have to re-install the O/S again. I come across this problem several times but today I did some research and found this easiest solution which work for me and I hope that It will work for you as well.
Follow below steps to get your UBUNTU launcher back:
1) Press CTRL+ALT+DTL in vm ware (3 Buttons combine) to open your processes window inside Virtual Machine.
2) Go to 3rd Tab (Disk) and double click on /dev/sda1. This will open your Files Explorer.
3) Now press CTRL+F for searching and find TERMINAL.
4) Open TERMINAL.
5) Write " sudo apt-get update "
6) Write " sudo apt-get install unity " to install Unity which will display you LAUNCHER.
7) Write " sudo reboot " to reboot your Virtual Machine.
After your computer / Virtual Machine is reboot, you can see your LAUNCHER back.
Above steps resolve my problem and if does the same in your case then please comment so the reliability of the post will increase.